Digitalization is the integration of digital technologies into a particular field, leveraging these technologies to change the fundamental way of operation, management model, and to provide new values for the targeted objects of that field.



In the digital transformation process, digitization plays a crucial role in success. The heritage conservation field is not an exception to this rule. The more detailed the digital data is, the higher the efficiency in both management and exploitation.



The digitalization of real objects and cultural relics must include data on geometric structure, material properties and other relevant information sources. Therefore, the goal of digitalization must ensure these data sources. At the same time, this data must be integrated at a single interface.



During the digital transformation process, related tasks such as management and exploitation are supplemented with new and more effective methods, which enhance the ability to convey visual information beyond the constraints of space and time.


Traditional Digitalization are methods of digitization such as:

  • Converting documents and texts into text records.
  • Converting data into digital image files.
  • Converting data into digital audio and video files.

360 degree image is a panoramic image technology that ensures a 360 degree view. This is the most effective tool for digitizing space, providing high quality, realistic images, along with a 360 degree view that provides a real-life feeling for the end user.

Combining multiple 360-degree images to create a multi-view image model, in which the user can move around in a virtual space. Implementing a multi-view image model also provides input for surface modeling, combined with 360-degree images to create a more realistic and immersive virtual space with more movement and viewing angles.

In addition to providing realistic images of space, 360-degree images also allow for the integration of additional information by attaching information points (infospots) directly within the image, making data editing more diverse and ensuring accompanying information and multimedia presentations. This helps to convey more complete information about landmarks.


360-degree images have the ability to be displayed on both regular flat screen devices as well as virtual reality devices, contributing to an enhanced experience.


360-degree images can be used to collect data from both ground and aerial perspectives, adding unique and unusual viewpoints that tourists may not be able to see firsthand. This technology is suitable for digitizing both open and closed spaces. There are various data collection devices that can be used depending on the objective, and multiple approaches can be used at the same location.


Reference on this technology:

Avalon Saigon

Vietnam Arhat Coridor

Photogrammetry và Aerial Photogrammetry: Photogrammetry is the technique of reconstructing the surface of an object through images taken from different angles. In terms of geometry, the distance between two objects in an image has a proportional zoom ratio to the actual distance. Therefore, by knowing this ratio and measuring the values on the image, the actual distance can be calculated. Then, from images with large overlap (75-85%), the model of the object can be reconstructed.

Aerial photogrammetry is a similar technology that uses aerial images to reconstruct the surface of large and complex areas in terms of both terrain and structures. With aerial photogrammetry, it is possible to implement areas of up to hundreds of hectares.


This technology utilizes aerial photography devices combined with GPS positioning. Each image captured is stored with GPS coordinates, which increases the accuracy of image stitching and model reconstruction.

San Ho beach in Song Cau town, Phu Yen province

In addition to reconstructing models, photogrammetry can also automatically generate the surface materials of an object. Therefore, it provides models that can be completely realistic.


Photogrammetry is often used to digitize large objects, while aerial photogrammetry is used for digitizing large areas or in combination with large objects.

Laser Scan is a technology that uses lasers from a station to scan an object and return information to the machine, allowing it to identify a point in reality. Laser scanning devices have the ability to emit millions of lasers to collect surface data from space. The laser scanning process is combined with image capture and color assignment for the collected points.

By placing multiple machines in different locations in an area, it is possible to reconstruct the surfaces of objects in space. The characteristic of laser scanning is high accuracy, which can reach 0.01mm at a distance of 20-30 meters.


The data collected by laser scanning is called a point cloud, which is often used in construction to compare the actual construction results with the design model. The point cloud has high detail and can reach hundreds of points per millimeter squared. From this point cloud data, the surface (mesh) of the real object can be reconstructed.


Combining Photogrammetry, Aerial Photogrammetry and Laser Scan: The point cloud data is a common feature of these three technologies, with photogrammetry also being able to generate point cloud data in the process of surface reconstruction. Combining point cloud data from all three data collection methods will provide high-quality input for object surface reconstruction.


The use of additional positioning devices such as laser receivers or target sheets can increase accuracy in combining different types of collected data. From this compiled data, the model is reconstructed with high quality due to the dense point density.

Vinh Nghiem Pagoda

Above is an example image of high-quality, high-detail 3D modeling and scanning positions. This technology has been used by foreign experts from CyArk to digitize a portion of the Tomb of Emperor Tu Duc in Hue, Thua Thien Hue. For more information on this project, see the link below:

Handhold 3D Laser Scan is a technology that uses a scanning machine to scan the surface of any object to obtain 100% of the data and generate a complete 3D descriptive file. This 3D file describes the shape, details, and size of the object in three-dimensional space. Handheld laser scanners are commonly used for digitizing small-sized objects. The scanning process combines imaging to recreate the surface of the object in real-time. If the product does not meet the requirements, the performer can supplement it with additional scans. This technology is based on surface stitching during the scanning process, so it is fast to perform.


The process of scanning objects is carried out through the following steps:

- Scan the object to create a surface model;

- Apply the material to accurately reflect the object in reality;

- Output the desired digital format.

The limitation of this technology is the recognition of flat surfaces or surfaces with high gloss materials. To address this, dust-proof coatings can be used to improve the quality of the scan and recognition, and then the dust can be cleaned from the object. In this case, photogrammetry technology can also be used as an alternative.

Web development: Websites and web applications are complete tools for managing information, editing various types of data, and presenting digital products. Currently, with the development of web programming systems, the display of 3D model data and 360-degree images no longer has the limitations it once had.o đã không còn các hạn chế như trước đây.

Therefore, it is possible to build a web system that fully displays information about objects or cultural relics, with multimedia capabilities (such as images and audio) of high quality, creating a more effective form of promotion of heritage in the digital age.

Web platforms not only bring effectiveness in promotion work, but also provide more effective tools in management when data is stored online and interacts in real time.

Data center and virtual assistant for tourism: After digitizing data sources and using new technologies to present data visually through web technology, related data is concentrated in a center. From there, the manager can build a virtual assistant, providing additional tools for tourists to easily find the information they want.